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Evaluation of antimalarial effect of methanol root extract of Costus Lucanusianus in the treatment of malaria-infested albino mice

Volume No : (2017) Volume: 05 Issue : 26 Year : 2017 Page No: 137-140

Authors : Ezerioha Chidi Emmanuel, Kagbo Hope Delesi

Abstract :

This study is one of its kinds because there is little or no published work on the plant in question. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of methanol root extract of Costus lucanusianus on chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei infection in mice. Method: The plant extract was screened for blood schizontocidal activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei infection in the mice. The schizontocidal activity was monitored at stages of early and established infection. The methanol extract of the roots at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight/day dose levels were used to treat the test groups immediately after infection for the suppressive test and 72 hours post infection for the curative test while a standard antimalarial drug, Chloroquine, at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 body weight was administered as the reference drug. The control group was left untreated. The levels of parasitemia in the different groups were monitored throughout the period of study. Result: The methanol extract at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight/day suppressed parasitemia by 112/μl, 128/μl, 192/μl after treating for four days in the suppressive test as against 144/μl for the standard drug with significance of p<0.0001, while the level of parasitemia was reduced by 528/μl, 320/μl and 240/μl, respectively after treating for three days in the curative test as against 160±/μl for the standard drug. Conclusion: These results show that the methanol root extract of Costus lucanusianus has suppressive and also potent curative effect against P. berghei in infected mice. Thus it may therefore offer the potential for a safe, effective and affordable antimalarial drug. It therefore justifies its use by those in rural areas to treat malaria.The mechanism behind the antiplasmodial activity displayed by C. lucanusianus is yet to be demonstrated. However, some plants have been shown to elicit antiplasmodial effects either by inducing an elevation of erythrocyte oxidation or by inhibiting the synthesis of proteins.

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