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A comprehensive review on antipsychotics in dentistry

Volume No : (2015) Volume: 03 Issue : 16 Year : 2015 Page No: 635-641

Authors : Preeti Nair, Nisheeth Saawarn, Pearl Helena Chand, Sahil Kohli, Pulkit Sharma

Abstract :

Psychiatric disorders are not uncommon; almost 10% of the population worldwide is affected. They are characterized by disorganized thought process, bizarre behavior and emotional reactions, these individuals may experience delirium, hallucinations, confusion and may interpret the surrounding events differently. Overall prevalence rate of psychic disorders in India vary from 9.5 to 370 per 1000 population. A variety of psychotropic drugs combined with psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and family support help to cope with this illness. Antipsychotics are categorized as first generation (conventional or typical) and second (atypical) generation antipsychotics. Though they are safe and have high therapeutic index, they all come with wide ranging side effects i.e. sedation, postural hypotension, extrapyramidal signs (dystonia, tardive dyskinesia), disturbed metabolism, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, dyslipidemia and prolactin levels. They also lead to oral manifestations such as dry mouth, increase in cavities, sialorrhea, taste abnormalities (dysgeusia, ageusia). The drugs which are routinely prescribed by an oral physician such as NSAIDs, erythromycin and tramadol may possibly interact with antipsychotics reducing their efficacies. Over the last few decades there has been a tremendous increase in the use of antipsychotics; consequently negative impact on oral health has been increasing. Tact and skill in diagnosis of mental illnesses/use of antipsychotics is essential due to social stigma associated with these disorders. Prejudicial attitude in health care workers is another hindrance which must be overcome. Hence dental health care worker should have an assiduous approach while dealing with these patients so as to reduce morbidity or life threatening circumstances.

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