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Disorders of electrolyte and acid-base and its impact association in intensive care patients

Volume No : (2021) Volume: 09 Issue : 42 Year : 2021 Page No: 37-43

Authors : Pradeep Kumar Dabla, Kumar Saurabh, Nilima Das2, Jyoti Bala3, Chandan Jha, Charbel Diwan, Ankit Sharma, Anirban Choudhuri

Abstract :

Aim: This study was aimed to assess acid-base and electrolyte disturbances among intensive care patients.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry with the Department of Anaesthesia intensive care unit (ICU), Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Delhi, India. Thirty critically ill patients from the ICU were enrolled in the study and arterial blood gas (ABG) with serum electrolytes was performed within 24 h of admission. Results: Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.67%) patients had no respiratory 

disturbance and 16 (53.33%) developed respiratory complications; 3 (10%) had metabolic alkalosis, 7 (23.33%) had metabolic acidosis, 4 (13.33%) had respiratory alkalosis, and 2 (6.66%) suffered from respiratory acidosis. Hyponatremia was present in ICU patients both that got discharged (130.95 ± 11.62 mEq/L) after improvement and those who expired (133.31 ± 7.71 mEq/L) during hospital 

stay. Mean serum potassium levels and chloride levels were normal among discharged and expired patients.

Conclusion: The present study showed that hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte disorder seen in our patients and metabolic acidosis was the most common acid-base disturbance. Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, especially hyponatremia and acidosis, were highly associated with ICU mortality. These disturbances should be monitored closely, diagnosed early, and managed correctly during hospitalization and iatrogenic factors should be avoided 

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