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Chemotherapy of tuberculosis: An updates

Volume No : (2015) Volume: 03 Issue : 15 Year : 2015 Page No: 525-535

Authors : Anochie, Philip Ifesinachi

Abstract :

This review examines the chemotherapy of tuberculosis (TB) in humans which will help in the understanding and treatment of the disease. Tuberculosis is spread primarily by inhalation of aerosolized infectious droplet nuclei of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) from patients with active pulmonary TB. The most common manifestation of TB in humans is pulmonary disease, but other organs are involved. TB is treated with a combination of anti-tubercular medications given simultaneously such as isoniazide, refampicin, pyrizinamide and ethambutol. The last new drug for treating MTb infections was rifampicin, introduced in 1972. Its use led to development of the short-course regimen, which forms the backbone of the highly effective Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS) strategy. But, the DOTS strategy has its problems. Drug toxicity, the long duration of therapy, and the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of MTb have highlighted an urgent need for new tools. New drugs that are better tolerated, that permit intermittent chemotherapy, or that affect cure in a shorter time would have a significant impact, making it easier and less expensive to deliver the DOTS strategy. By spending less time on therapy and reducing the number of treatment failures, savings in the cost of providing healthcare can be made which will help in the control of the disease.

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